Secure, trusting bonds are essential if young people are to grow, learn, and thrive (Baumeister, 2011; Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 2005; Shulevitz, 2013).
Today there are literally millions of young people disconnected and living in violent communities with over stressed families and schools that are depersonalized. They traverse dangerous communities and the ecology in which they live is one of extreme levels of toxic stress.
The most troubled and troubling kids display behaviors that increase their disconnection and also increase their alienation from caring adults. These kids get kicked out of everything and often as they get into high school are expelled to nowhere.
Youth at risk experience pervasive emotional pain and react with pain-based behavior (Anglin, 2014).